THE WINE AND THE WORLD, A LONG HISTORY AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

eve-1071356_960_720Wine history is closely linked to civilizations. Born dice antiquity, grapes, and wine have known a complex evolution and a turbulent history before being the plant and the drink we know today. Over time, with the wine, the art of living took place, especially in France, the reference country for wine and gastronomy. Little by little, wine saw his production centers expanded and is grown today worldwide.

 

Let’s start from the beginning

People eat grapes since the Paleolithic time but the oldest traces of wine productions date back from 6000 BC and are situated on the shores of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, i.e., current Georgia and Armenia, the cradle of wine culture.

At the IVth millennium BC, the wine is present in Turkey and Iran and the III rd millennium in Egypt and Greece. Phoenician traders and then the Greek colonization of the first millennium BC  diffused plants throughout the Mediterranean basin, particularly in France from colonies of Massalia (Marseille) and Agde. The barrel used by Gallic to store different foods and Cervoise replaced the amphora, fragile and impractical.

 

 The colonization’s benefits

 

file0001538871802Roman colonization created and developed most of the vineyards we know, first towards Aquitaine, the valleys of Rhone and Saône, then throughout the whole Gaul, Spain, Lusitania, Germany, and the North African countries. Despite the great invasions of the Roman Empire that will slow its growth, production restarts in the Ninth century, thanks to the abbeys, the monks-winemakers provided the indispensable sacramental wine for the sacrament of the Eucharist. Production will then grow much from the fourteenth century, especially in English Aquitaine.

 

Phylloxera and vineyards

In the middle of the nineteenth-century, Phylloxera was accidentally introduced in the South of France. This Aphid spread and destroyed most of the vineyard. The importation of American plants resistant to the insects saved the European vineyards. Today, they covers nearly eight million hectares worldwide, and France became the second largest wine producer.

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