HOW TO SUPPORT YOUR CHILD WITH HIS PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT

 

 

Léa D’Errico Psychomotor Therapist CMI – HCMC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From 0 to 1 year

From 0 to 3 months: Sensory Pleasures

The Psychomotor development:
The baby needs to suckle to get feed and suck for pleasure. On his belly, he likes to find the fetal position: knees brought under the belly, arms bent, he will support himself on the forearms, and will straighten the head. The baby watches the toys but he cannot catch them by himself.

 

The sensory development:
From the first days of his life, the newborn begins to discover the world around him, thanks to his senses
Vision – The baby is sensitive to contrasts. At three weeks, he recognizes the face of his mother from up close.
Hearing – The baby is sensitive to high-pitched sounds and tones. He recognizes the voice of his parents.
Smell – The baby reacts to smells like milk, maternal skin.
Taste – The taste appears in the womb and continues to develop.
Touch – The baby needs to touch as much as to be cuddled and massaged. The sensitive areas are first the mouth, the hand and the skin of the whole body.
The effective and social development:
The baby needs an adult to respond quickly and appropriately to his demands to feel safe and in confidence; the baby will enjoy exercising spontaneously.

 

How to posture your child?
The newborn is sensitive to changes in the position he needs to be carried in the arms and against the chest of the adult. He needs to be a lull and to be cuddled, he will feel so content and secure.

 

When the baby does not hold his head yet:

“Little Buddha posture”

 

 

 

 

One hand on the buttocks and the other to his feet level to bring back baby into the physiological winding position, his back against your belly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When the child has trouble holding his head:

You hold the baby against your belly, one hand near the chin, so that the head does not tip forward and a hand under his buttocks.

 

 

 

 

The baby takes pleasure and interest in exercising his spontaneous activity, he seizes the new possibilities offered by its sensorimotor development, progressing day by day according to his capacities and discoveries, each small step preceding and preparing the next in a continuous process and in a given order. In doing so, the baby does not pursue a goal; he goes on an adventure, groping, reproducing, and controlling each accomplishment. He is capable of great effort and tenacity but also capable of resting, sometimes looking elsewhere, and then returning to his task.
Doing this activity spontaneously, the baby becomes the leader of his own overall development progression: psychomotor, cognitive and psychic. The spontaneous activity of the baby, therefore, plays a vital role in his development. “It is important not to upset him by intruding and exposing the baby to postures he has not yet discovered and he is not yet ready to adopt, removing the joy of discovering by himself the confidence in his own abilities”

 

 

 

 

Games and toys adapted:

Toys with sounds: rattles, jingle bells, rolly pollies, stuffed toys and fabric toys
Awakening-mats with visual elements that will be attractive to him.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mobiles, abacuses with contrasting colors. Soft music, rhymes, songs, music box.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From 3 to 6 months:

Discovery of his body and chirps psychomotor development:
4 months: The baby is able to hold his head in alignment with his body. He begins to move in his bed by rotation. He rolls his back on the sides.
5 months: The baby can lift the entire bust by resting on the forearms and can turn to the side. He likes to pedal with his legs and tries to catch his feet. Gestures and sight allow him to grab an object with four fingers. This is the global palmar grip.
6 months: The baby starts to sit with a support and turns back from the belly on his back. Flat on the back, he likes to play with his feet and bring them to his mouth. He can hold two small cubes in his hands but if the cubes fall, he won’t look for them.

Sensory development:
After 3 months, the baby sees beyond 2.50 meters, he sees precisely the faces, the objects and distinguishes the colors. He explores space through the eyes and discovers a little more his environment thanks to his more refined 5 senses. He needs to bring everything to his mouth and enjoy it (oral stage).

 

Affective and social development:
The baby discovers the pleasure of exchange through vocalizations, smiles-responses, mimicry, and then the selective smile. He laughs loudly with people around him. He becomes aware of the sounds he makes and repeats them by playing with the syllables.

 

The mirror:

The baby is especially interested in the image of the person who is carrying him. He will smile at the image of the adult and turn to him. The baby differentiates his mother from his father, a familiar person with a stranger. He’s actively seeking to get close to the person caring for him, less worried, more available, which favors his interest in novelty.

 

How to posture your child?
When the child holds his head but does not sit alone
Baby is installed between the holder’s legs, his back resting against the belly of the adult. This position prepares him for autonomy. By bringing it closer to the ground, the child gradually moves away from his wearer’s arms. Placing an object on the side, the child will turn his head, then his shoulders, and the bust towards the object, if you place the object a few inches in front of him, the child plunges his hands to the ground to catch it and begins to push the ground with his hands to straighten up.

 

 

If you try different body situations: flat back, side, stomach this will stimulate the pleasure of the movement.

 

 

 

Games toys:
Play mats of different fabrics, easy-to-catch musical rattles, foam cubes. Plastic teething rings and small rubber animals, a portico (during short periods of time) Soft music, rhymes, a mobile over the bed.
6 to 9 months: a period of great muscular activity.

 

Psychomotor development:
7 months baby can sit without support, hands forward. He acquires the gripping between the thumb and the other fingers. He passes the toy from one hand to another and may voluntarily release an object. He knows how to reach out and says several syllables: “ba-ba-ba” “ma-ma-ma”, “da-da-da”
8 months, on his back, the baby can lift up to the sitting position. He can sit without support and can roll on himself and starts to crawl. The baby is worried about foreign faces; this is the anxiety of the 8th month. He looks for discarded and fallen toys. He understands that he is distinct from his mother. He applauds, says goodbye and understands the meaning of “no”.

9 months the baby moves on all fours, stands up and clings to the furniture, to the park … He can seize the objects between the thumb and the forefinger (pick gripping). He understands the meaning of simple orders. It combines different types of syllables: “daddy”, “mom”.

 

Sensory development:

7, 8 and 9 months
His vision and hearing are refined.
His taste develops and baby can refuse to eat. It can also be a way of opposing to the adult.

 

Affective and social development:
The baby is afraid of strangers he can react badly when he is separated from his parents and especially from his mother. The baby recognizes that his mother is different from him and other people this drives him little by little, towards autonomy. Some babies will find reassurance being in contact with a privileged object (cuddly toy); it is the transitional object, which will allow him to support the absence of his family and to make the link between the house and the outside.

 

How to posture the child:
When he sits alone and when he is able to turn independently on the ground, baby can be installed on one of your thighs (you are on the ground). In this position, the child finds mobility in his pelvis. He can explore the lateral spaces by turning around his axis, look and go to grab objects placed on the right, on the left, to bend forward, he can recalibrate the axis of his body, thanks to the support of your torso. This stage is fundamental because baby strengthens his muscles. His axis is consolidated in all directions of space. He can use his hands to play, eat, manipulate…

 

 

Games and toys:
Early learning tables, musical phone, fabric dolls, brightly colored cubes and nest boxes, little balls, plastic balls in different materials: fabric, rubber, wood. Toys to pile, build, embed, fit… Teething necklaces, keys, rings, multicolored rubber triangles, toys to throw to the ground
Game of hiding and seek, games of the mirror
Read short stories, sing, mime nursery rhymes, listen to soft music…

 

 

From 9 months to 1 year: let’s go forward and walk!

Psychomotor development:
psychomotor progress is important during this period. The baby becomes aware of the lower part of his body and sits with stability walks on all fours, stands with support and then, without support; he begins to walk with support. The baby catches objects with more and more precision. He wants to hold his spoon and drink alone by the glass; he succeeds more or less easily.

 

Language development:
The baby speaks to his parents saying “daddy”, “mom”. He associates the gesture with the word. He repeats more and more syllables and says a few words.

 

Affective and social development:
The baby points to what interests him. He understands what is forbidden to him, the facial expressions of the adults, the meaning of a few words as well as simple orders. He is able to find a hidden object and calm down by taking it. He likes to make charming faces and tries to imitate what he sees. His actions are intentional. He reflects and reproduces what he has already experienced. Baby needs the support of his parents to manage his emotions and looks for their kind look and approval.

 

Games toys:
This is the age of exploration, everything is new for the child; he examines everything tirelessly because everything amuses and interests him. He likes the same toys as before but diversifies their use. The least of the objects becomes a toy. He particularly likes musical toys (“rain stick”, maracas and xylophone) toys to hang out or to push water games. He appropriates books and turns the pages, bites them, integrates them into his games, but always enjoys listening to the stories.
He loves going out for a walk, discovering the outside world.

 

How to posture the child:

 

 

This article makes it easier to observe your child, and give you some tips to support its development. This is by no means an exhaustive list and should be applied without considering the stage and pace of development of your child. Each child develops at his speed, and progresses in a nonlinear way: there are leaps forward, stagnations and backtracking. Is no use to burn the stages; is by letting the child cross at his own pace that he will progress. Ask for advice to your pediatrician if you have any questions or concerns. He can answer to it and, if necessary, refer to a specialist.

 

Sources

Le développement de l’enfant de 0 à 6 ans

La motricité libre

La motricité libre c’est quoi?

Eveil sensoriel : Les recommandations d’une psychomot

Comment bien porter et installer son enfant

Book : « le bébé en mouvement », Lucile Meunier, édition Dunod, 2016

 

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